Saturday, March 29, 2014
Friday, March 14, 2014
RTP Header UsageThe format of the RTP header is specified in [RFC3550] and reprinted in Figure 2 for convenience. This payload format uses the fields of the header in a manner consistent with that specification. The RTP payload (and the settings for some RTP header bits) for aggregation packets and fragmentation units 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |V=2|P|X| CC |M| PT | sequence number | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | timestamp | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | synchronization source (SSRC) identifier | +=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+ | contributing source (CSRC) identifiers | | .... | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Figure 2 RTP header according to [RFC3550] The RTP header information to be set according to this RTP payload format is set as follows:
Marker bit (M): 1 bit Set for the last packet, carried in the current RTP stream, of the access unit, in line with the normal use of the M bit in video formats, to allow an efficient playout buffer handling. When MSM is in use, if an access unit appears in multiple RTP streams, the marker bit is set on each RTP stream's last packet of the access unit. Informative note: The content of a NAL unit does not tell whether or not the NAL unit is the last NAL unit, in decoding order, of an access unit. An RTP sender implementation may obtain this information from the video encoder. If, however, the implementation cannot obtain this information directly from the encoder, e.g. when the bitstream was pre-encoded, and also there is no timestamp allocated for each NAL unit, then the sender implementation can inspect subsequent NAL units in decoding order to determine whether or not the NAL unit is the last NAL unit of an access unit as follows. A NAL unit naluX is the last NAL unit of an access unit if it is the last NAL unit of the bitstream or the next VCL NAL unit naluY in decoding order has the high-order bit of the first byte after its NAL unit header equal to 1, and all NAL units between naluX and naluY, when present, have nal_unit_type in the range of 32 to 35, inclusive, equal to 39, or in the ranges of 41 to 44, inclusive, or 48 to 55, inclusive. Payload type (PT): 7 bits The assignment of an RTP payload type for this new packet format is outside the scope of this document and will not be specified here. The assignment of a payload type has to be performed either through the profile used or in a dynamic way. Informative note: It is not required to use different payload type values for different RTP streams in MSM. Sequence number (SN): 16 bitsTimestamp: 32 bits The RTP timestamp is set to the sampling timestamp of the content. A 90 kHz clock rate MUST be used. If the NAL unit has no timing properties of its own (e.g. parameter set and SEI NAL units), the RTP timestamp MUST be set to the RTP timestamp of the coded picture of the access unit in which the NAL unit (according to Section 18.104.22.168.4 of [HEVC]) is included. Receivers MUST use the RTP timestamp for the display process, even when the bitstream contains picture timing SEI messages or decoding unit information SEI messages as specified in [HEVC]. However, this does not mean that picture timing SEI messages in the bitstream should be discarded, as picture timing SEI messages may contain frame-field information that is important in appropriately rendering interlaced video. Synchronization source (SSRC): 32-bits Used to identify the source of the RTP packets. In SSM, by definition a single SSRC is used for all parts of a single bitstream. In MSM, each SSRC is used for an RTP stream containing a subset of the sub-layers for a single (temporally scalable) bitstream. A receiver is required to correctly associate the set of SSRCs that are included parts of the same bitstream. Informative note: The term "bitstream" in this document is equivalent to the term "encoded stream" in [I-D.ietf- avtext-rtp-grouping-taxonomy].
Single NAL Unit PacketsA single NAL unit packet contains exactly one NAL unit, and consists of a payload header (denoted as PayloadHdr), a conditional 16-bit DONL field (in network byte order), and the NAL unit payload data (the NAL unit excluding its NAL unit header) of the contained NAL unit, as shown in Figure0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | PayloadHdr | DONL (conditional) | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | | | NAL unit payload data | | | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | :...OPTIONAL RTP padding | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Figure 3 The structure a single NAL unit packet The payload header SHOULD be an exact copy of the NAL unit header of the contained NAL unit. However, the Type (i.e. nal_unit_type) field MAY be changed, e.g. when it is desirable to handle a CRA picture to be a BLA picture [JCTVC-J0107]. The DONL field, when present, specifies the value of the 16 least significant bits of the decoding order number of the contained NAL unit. If tx-mode is equal to "MSM" or sprop-max-don-diff is greater than 0, the DONL field MUST be present, and the variable DON for the contained NAL unit is derived as equal to the value of the DONL field. Otherwise (tx-mode is equal to "SSM" and sprop-max-don-diff is equal to 0), the DONL field MUST NOT be present.
4.7 Aggregation Packets (APs)Aggregation packets (APs) are introduced to enable the reduction of packetization overhead for small NAL units, such as most of the non-VCL NAL units, which are often only a few octets in size. An AP aggregates NAL units within one access unit. Each NAL unit to be carried in an AP is encapsulated in an aggregation unit. NAL units aggregated in one AP are in NAL unit decoding order. An AP consists of a payload header (denoted as PayloadHdr) followed by two or more aggregation units, as shown in Figure0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | PayloadHdr (Type=48) | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | | | | two or more aggregation units | | | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | :...OPTIONAL RTP padding | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Figure The structure of an aggregation packet The fields in the payload header are set as follows. The F bit MUST be equal to 0 if the F bit of each aggregated NAL unit is equal to zero; otherwise, it MUST be equal to 1. The Type field MUST be equal to 48. The value of LayerId MUST be equal to the lowest value of LayerId of all the aggregated NAL units. The value of TID MUST be the lowest value of TID of all the aggregated NAL units. Informative Note: All VCL NAL units in an AP have the same TID value since they belong to the same access unit. However, an AP may contain non-VCL NAL units for which the TID value in the NAL unit header may be different than the TID value of the VCL NAL units in the same AP. An AP MUST carry at least two aggregation units and can carry as many aggregation units as necessary; however, the total amount of data in an AP obviously MUST fit into an IP packet, and the size SHOULD be chosen so that the resulting IP packet is smaller than the MTU size so to avoid IP layer fragmentation. An AP MUST NOT contain Fragmentation Units (FUs) specified in section 4.8. APs MUST NOT be nested; i.e. an AP MUST NOT contain another AP. The first aggregation unit in an AP consists of a conditional 16- bit DONL field (in network byte order) followed by a 16-bit unsigned size information (in network byte order) that indicates the size of the NAL unit in bytes.
Fragmentation Units (FUs)Fragmentation units (FUs) are introduced to enable fragmenting a single NAL unit into multiple RTP packets, possibly without cooperation or knowledge of the HEVC encoder. A fragment of a NAL unit consists of an integer number of consecutive octets of that NAL unit. Fragments of the same NAL unit MUST be sent in consecutive order with ascending RTP sequence numbers (with no other RTP packets within the same RTP stream being sent between the first and last fragment). When a NAL unit is fragmented and conveyed within FUs, it is referred to as a fragmented NAL unit. APs MUST NOT be fragmented. FUs MUST NOT be nested; i.e. an FU MUST NOT contain a subset of another FU.The RTP timestamp of an RTP packet carrying an FU is set to the NALU-time of the fragmented NAL unit. An FU consists of a payload header (denoted as PayloadHdr), an FU header of one octet, a conditional 16-bit DONL field (in network byte order), and an FU payload, as shown in Figure 9. 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | PayloadHdr (Type=49) | FU header | DONL (cond) | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-| | DONL (cond) | | |-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | | FU payload | | | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | :...OPTIONAL RTP padding | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ Figure 9 The structure of an FU The fields in the payload header are set as follows. The Type field MUST be equal to 49. The fields F, LayerId, and TID MUST be equal to the fields F, LayerId, and TID, respectively, of the fragmented NAL unit. The FU header consists of an S bit, an E bit, and a 6-bit FuType field, as shown in Figure 10. +---------------+ |0|1|2|3|4|5|6|7| +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |S|E| FuType | +---------------+ Figure 10 The structure of FU header
Thursday, March 13, 2014
The Boyer Moore algorithm is the fastest string searching algorithm.
The Boyer Moore algorithm is the fastest string searching algorithm.
It compares the pattern with the actual string from right to left. Most other algorithms
compare from left to right. If the character that is compared with the rightmost pattern
symbol does not occur in the pattern at all, then the pattern can be shifted by m positions
behind this text symbol.
The following example illustrates this situation.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ...
a b b a d a b a c b a
b a b a c |
b a b a c
The comparison of "d" with "c" at position 4 does not match. "d" does not occur in the
pattern. Therefore, the pattern cannot match at any of the positions 0,1,2,3,4, since all
corresponding windows contain a "d". The pattern can be shifted to position 5. The best
case for the Boyer-Moore algorithm happens if, at each search attempt the first compared
character does not occur in the pattern. Then the algorithm requires only O(n/m)
Bad character heuristics
This method is called bad character heuristics. It can also be applied if the bad character
(the character that causes a mismatch), occurs somewhere else in the pattern. Then the
pattern can be shifted so that it is aligned to this text symbol. The next example illustrates
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ...
a b b a b a b a c b a
b a b a c
|b a b a c
Comparison between "b" and "c" causes a mismatch. The character "b" occurs in the
pattern at positions 0 and 2. The pattern can be shifted so that the rightmost "b" in the
pattern is aligned to "b".